Boethius on the Unity of God

Thought that this might be interesting. While looking West, I find that they were much more focused on the Unity, while the East, even now, seems to be focused on the Plurality.

There are many who claim as theirs the dignity of the Christian religion; but that form of faith is valid and only valid which, both on account of the universal character of the rules and doctrines affirming its authority, and because the worship in which they are expressed has spread throughout the world, is called catholic or universal. The belief of this religion concerning the Unity of the Trinity is as follows: the Father is God, the Son is God, the Holy Spirit is God. Therefore Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are one God, not three Gods. The cause of this union is absence of difference: difference cannot be avoided by those who add to or take from the Unity, as for instance the Arians, who, by graduating the Trinity according to merit, break it up and convert it to Plurality. For the essence of plurality is otherness; apart from otherness plurality is unintelligible. In fact, the difference between three or more things lies in genus or species or number. Difference is the necessary correlative of sameness. Sameness is predicated in three ways:

  • By genus; e.g. a man and a horse, because of their common genus, animal.
  • By species; e.g. Cato and Cicero, because of their common species, man.
  • By number; e.g. Tully and Cicero, because they are one and the same man. Similarly, difference is expressed by genus, species, and number.

Now numerical difference is caused by variety of accidents; three men differ neither by genus nor species but by their accidents, for if we mentally remove from them all other accidents, still each one occupies a different place which cannot possibly be regarded as the same for each, since two bodies cannot occupy the same place, and place is an accident. Wherefore it is because men are plural by their accidents that they are plural in number.

And finishing his tract, he ends,

But where there are no differences there is no plurality; where is no plurality there is Unity. Again, nothing but God can be begotten of God, and lastly, in concrete enumerations the repetition of units does not produce plurality. Thus the Unity of the Three is suitably established. (from here)

It would seem that even in the late 5th century, the 3rd century Roman insistence on unity – of One God with no plurality – still survived.

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