This is only the start of the article, but it should be enough to get you going:
Unsettled ChristianityOne blog to rule them all, One blog to find them, One blog to bring them all and in the darkness bind them.
Once upon a time, all of Christianity was united and believed everything the exact same way. Not really.
Tertullian’s Formula was never used for much of the 4th century Christological debates, surprisingly enough. It was, however, redefined by Damasus in the late 4th century to mesh with the Eastern viewpoint. Personally, I like Tertullian in the Greek.
As we close the 4th Century, at least in this aspect (we must remember that Augustine did his fair share of doctrinal development regarding the Trinity) we find that in the end, a young Emperor used the force of Rome to settle the councils and their questions.
The best part of the 4th Century of Christianity was the intervening years between 325 and 381. Here, Roman almost slipped back into Paganism at the most and a pluralistic society as the least:
This was part of a presentation given on the development of the Doctrine of the Trinity earlier this year. I focuses on the history of it. Here is the portion of the First Ecumenical Council. Personally, St. Nicolas is still a hero of mine.
The 4th Century of Christianity is by far the most exiting. With the end of Roman persecutions, when the Empire, and thus the world, stopped turning on the Christians, they started to do it to themselves. First, of course, was the Council of Nicaea which was brought about by Arius’s disputation that Christ was a creature, begotten of God, higher in rank than all others, but in the end, a mere creature. The Emperor stepped in. At the First Ecumenical Council, a creed was produced which was ambivalent enough for both sides to agree to it (except Arius and two of his generals, one of which would later baptize Constantine on his death bed). While many assume that the intervening years between that council and the council of 381 were quiet, in the end, it simply wasn’t. It saw the great Athanasius accused of murder, exiled, and eventually restore back to his bishopric. It also saw the parting of ways begin which would eventually split Christendom into the East and West. (Even today, the West focuses on the unity of the Godhead while the East focuses on the triunity.)
As we explore the development of the Doctrine of the Trinity in the 4th Century, I thought that I might show the various takes on it by artists across the spectrum.
To know history is also to become Catholic. We, along with the Orthodox are the only Churches that stretch right back to Christ and the Apostles. The true faith has literally been handed from the apostles to their successors the bishops through the laying on of hands. We have a living Tradition of cherished teachings and memories going back to Christ himself.
Note also here.
Andrew has a post showcasing the various views from within Rome concerning the development of theology – which very much is a historical fact.
The Son is in the Father because his whole being is proper to the Father’s essence…so that whoever sees the Son sees what belongs to the Father and understands that the Son’s being, because it comes from the Father, is therefore in the Father. The Father is in the Son, because the Son is what is from the Father and belongs to him. They relate to one another as the radiance to the sun, the word to the thought expressed and the stream to the fountain. Whoever contemplates the Son like this contemplates what belongs to the Father’s essence and knows that the Father is in the Son. (Discourses Against the Arians 3.23.3 ACD vol 1 pg72)