Unsettled Christianity

Gloria Dei homo vivens – St Irenaeus
March 14th, 2017

Book Notice: “Salvation by Allegiance Alone: Rethinking Faith, Works, and the Gospel of Jesus the King”

We are saved by faith when we trust that Jesus died for our sins. This is the gospel, or so we are taught. But what is faith? And does this accurately summarize the gospel? Because faith is frequently misunderstood and the climax of the gospel misidentified, the gospel’s full power remains untapped. While offering a fresh proposal for what faith means within a biblical theology of salvation, Matthew Bates presses the church toward a new precision: we are saved solely by allegiance to Jesus the king. Instead of faith alone, Christians must speak about salvation by allegiance alone. The book includes discussion questions for students, pastors, and church groups and a foreword by Scot McKnight.

December 17th, 2014

Review of @bakeracademic’s “Atonement, Law, and Justice: The Cross in Historical and Cultural Contexts”

Adonis Vidu has no need to argue in his work, Atonement, Law, and Justice: The Cross in Historical and Cultural Contexts, which atonement model is the most accurate. Rather, his purpose is to trace a path of model development next to evolving systems of justice, from the ancient world to the modern. Vidu matter of factly states, “the history of atonement thinking could be read as an ongoing conversation with the history of thinking about justice and the law.” (xiv) His book does not simply fill a gap, but may in fact help us understand atonement modeling as a contextual paradigm, perhaps loosening our tight grip on particular expressions.

Atonement, Law, and Justice has 6 chapters, with the first 4 examining the development of atonement and justice since before the Christian-era. Chapter 5 examines the atonement via various modern lens with the final chapter acting the the author’s view. Chapter 1 examines the development of justice and law in Patristic thought, although Vidu is smart in bringing in Homer, Plato, and other familiar pre-Christian influencers first. Nothing develops in a vacuum, not even Christian theology. As such, we encounter philosophy, before we are led to Augustinian theology (which is based on philosophy!). To be quite clear, our usual notions of the atonement as retributive justice are called into question — as well as they should,  if we are to be consistent with the cognitive environment of the New Testament writers. For the ancients, justice is order, but not necessarily equity. Thus, the gods were unrestrained in achieving that order, with little or no expectation between the deities and humans. Law was second, if not third. For the modern (American) reader, the notion of an executive pardon (refusing to punish a law-breaker) may be the best image here. It wasn’t until the Romans borrowed Stoicism that justice existed outside of social order, becoming an internal virtue.

atonement

Say what?

This move from justice-as-order to justice-as-equity fed directly into early Christian thought. After all, once justice becomes a virtue, then one can assign it to God. This then separates justice from non-justice, good from evil, and law from disorder, leading us into the rollercoaster of atonement models and justification theology. Where once the divine could contain deceit, evil, etc… the doctrine of divine simplicity started to take hold, giving way to a higher refrain of justice only complete in God. Because of this, we move from the ransom theories to a satisfaction model. Before I go too far into summarizing this chapter, allow me to simply suggest that this chapter is a hallmark in not only the study of Augustinian theology, but in early Christendom. In the end, Augustine’s move towards anchoring the sacrifice of Christ to a divine justice sets the stage for medieval atonement models.

Is God tied to or bound by law? That seems to be the discussion between Anselm and Abelard in the late medieval ages. More than that, however, is the shift (Vidu calls it a revolution) from law-as-specific to context, to a universal notion of law and legal remedies. Because of this universality in viewpoint, Anselm is able to offer his satisfaction theory, which precludes free grace. In other words, a wrong required a penalty. Abelard, on the other hand, moves away from original sin, but into a realm of what is desirable. Vidu shows that these two men and the third, Aquinas, are very much products of their time. Here especially, Vidu slows down and gives us a great depth of understanding as to how changing notions of law, justice, and universality shape the various atonement models during this time. Likewise, we are introduced to John Duns Scotus (p79 — 87) and left to wonder if the notion of atonement, as developed as it was by European developments in law and justice, did not contribute to the development of our Western society, ending with the separation of Church and State. I suspect that this portion of Vidu’s thesis is at least a remarkably important read in understanding Western Christianity, Christian civilization, and how our doctrines have shaped our current political realities. I cannot stress this enough — I desire more from Vidu on this subject, and would have sacrifice more time and pages to read more from our author on Don Scotus.

We are now ready to be reformed, which is the subject of chapter 3. Here, Vidu takes us through Luther and Calvin, who existed in Duns Scotus’ now secular shadow — where law was autonomous. If anyone has read anything from the New Perspective on Paul theologians (E.P. Sanders, James Dunn, or N.T. Wright), you will become immediately familiar with Vidu’s take here. Because the notion of the Law and what authority it has has been transformed in European society of the time, the same thing shapes Protestant theology. Luther and Calvin cannot be divorced from their time, but like several others before them, are shaped by it.

It is here that I question if the usual modern refrain of the Church shaping the World or the World shaping the Church. While Vidu’s book does not tackle this issue, I cannot help but see that when we had no Christendom, or no firmly established Christendom, Christians and their doctrine shaped the world. After a millenia of Christendom, the world shaped us. The one real stand-out during this time is Duns Scotus. While Aquinas gave to the Church Universal Natural Law as tied to Divine Law, Duns Scotus broke that a part, preparing a way not only for the separation of Church and State, but so too the separation of the Body of Christ in the West. 

Up until recently, legality and morality were thought to be the same. In our current world, we know better. Which is, perhaps, why so many Christians challenge the very idea of atonement. Secular law is decided by the State whereas, for the most part, moral law is still divine (or at least above the State). Names like Kant and Schleiermacher come to the forefront. Ritschl as well. And each, leading the way in the liberal Protestant tradition and thought, removes the exchange in atonement, making it subjective (according to Vidu). This is the sum of chapter 4.

Chapter 5 turns to post-modern thought, tackling the changing of terms and ideas from historic Christian lexicons to psychologist-influenced trends. His first engagement with a modern theology is with Andrew Sung Park, a seminary professor of mine at United Theological Seminary. Park incorporates Han into the equation, something Vidu takes to task. I should not like to decide who is correct here. From here, Vidu tackles feminist and postcolonial views on sin and atonement. Theologians and thought leaders such as  Foucault, Derrida, and Girard are given special treatment by Vidu. He treats each one well, giving them their voice — and then attempts to demolish their arguments. It is up to the readers to decide if he succeeds. Their arguments are met from the positive angle in chapter 6, where Vidu begins to shape his view on atonement, law, and justice.

There are few deficits in Vidu’s work. He does not take into account Jewish thoughts on justice and law. I would like to have seen how the rabbis fit into these paradigms. Further, there are no counters to the hegemonic West. Augustine is left without Cassian and Aquinas has no Gregory Palamas. I realize he is not writing an encyclopedia or multi-volume set; however, in getting into the cultural contexts, which themselves stand as comparisons one to another, a bit of the East should have been mentioned.

There are two important takeaways for me, personally. One, it shows a somewhat well-ordered path in developing the penal substitutionary atonement model. Note, never once does he argue for this view as the only view. This is interesting because of the development of other doctrines. Secondly, I think it shows the sad state of liberal Protestantism. Where we once had great thinkers, digesting 1900 years of theological and philosophical thought, we are now left with loud-mouth bloggers with little or no intellectual training. What thinkers we do have are often times shredded in engagements, retreating to catch-phrases like oppression, privilege, and bully.

I started this book with a distaste in my mouth. I do not believe in penal substitutionary atonement — although the atonement takes center stage in my theology. However, while I am not convinced that PSA is correct, I am convinced Vidu has provided the Church a rather important book in discerning the doctrine of atonement and allowing that it has developed. Also, I think he has called us to be mindful of our context and the way we approach issues of Christian thought. Finally, especially in chapter 5, Vidu gives us reason to suspect the liberal Protestant tradition along with post-modern thought may in fact be bankrupt when it comes to their stances on the atonement. It is expertly researched, meticulously crafted, and properly presented.

the portions in italics do not appear on Amazon. 

March 19th, 2014

Review of “Bonhoeffer the Assassin?” by @BakerAcademic on the @AcademicLogos Platform

Dietrich Bonhoeffer 1939 in London

Click to Order via Logos

Logos sent along a nice review copy of a new book: Bonhoeffer the Assassin? Challenging the Myth, Recovering His Call to Peacemaking. The focus of the review is not so much the argument, which I will get to, but why Logos. I previously shared some pictures of the iPad version.

The point of this review is not so much the content or the argument; however, I can never pass a good argument up. Unfortunately, Nation fails to deliver a solid response to the still-as-yet historical fact that Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a man who preached pacifism, attempt to kill Hitler. There are, of course, variations on what this meant. Did the German theologian provide care, direction, or even help in planning? Or perhaps he was ready to kill the monster himself. Regardless, this fact does not sit well with those who hold that had Bonhoeffer attempted to kill Hitler, then his preaching is far less reliant than had he not.

I, of course disagree. Regardless of our theological tenets and ethical stances, we must always wrestle with them, especially the face of such cruelty as of that imposed by the Third Reich. If Bonhoeffer had had a chance to kill Hitler — if both men were alone in a room, say — but refused, how much more the moral monster might we think the theologian today rather than the somewhat hypocritical ethicist. Indeed, if we do not wrestle with our positions, we slide into fundamentalism of which the end is always disaster.

Nation, Siegrist, and Umbral argue from silence too often. Rather than taking Eberhard Bethge’s memorys as factual they desire to supplant it with theological expectations. Bethgre was part of the conspiracy. Logic dictates, then, that the testimony of a man this close not only to Bonhoeffer (as student) and to the conspiracy must have some weight. Yet, the only argument put forth by the authors seems to be that we cannot know the facial expressions therefore we really do not know what was said (89). They overrule reasonable plausibility with concern of theological preservation.

I must suggest this book as an exercise in discovering the Historical Jesus.

But, on to the Logos platform. I prefer electronic editions of most things. Indeed, I have the Kindle, iBooks, Goodreader, Inking, Olivetree, and, of course, Logos on my iPad. I like the versatility electronic editions give me as well as the cure for my inability to write in books. With the Logos Bible Software program, I have the ability to not only have an extensive library by my side, whatever my travels, but I have the ability to keep all of my notes and highlights as well. Further, whether I make a note on my iPad, iPhone, or Mac, the note is synced across the library. Of course, this is the same with Kindle and Olivetree, but Logos does something better. With Logos, I can copy and paste into my word processor and expect the correct footnote, with correct page number, to show up.

Logos also provides the timeline feature. For instance, if I am building a timeline of 20th century Christianity, I but need to find the flags next to each mentioned date (available in all resources) and pin them to the timeline. There are existing timelines, but by doing this, I can create a specific one. Not only this, Logos has the excellent search feature, not just for this resource, but so too for all resources. Note, when I search for anything in my library, this will now be among the resources searched.

All in all, if I was going to buy this book, I’d buy it in Logos. As a matter of fact, my first instinct is to always go to Logos because there I have not just the ability to always have it, but the ability to really make use of it.

I have a video review posted:

Here are some pictures from the Mac version:

timeline logos bonoeffer

bib sources bonoeffer logos

Search bonoeffer logos

February 3rd, 2014

Inside “Bonhoeffer the Assassin?” by @BakerAcademic on the @AcademicLogos Platform

Logos sent along a nice review copy of a new book: Bonhoeffer the Assassin? Challenging the Myth, Recovering His Call to Peacemaking. The focus of the review is not so much the argument, which I will get to, but why Logos.

I have Kindle, iBooks, and Logos. As one who does a lot of reading, as well as research, I like to keep all of my notes and scribbles on one platform. Kindle is fine, but if I had my choice, it will always be Logos. And here is why. Attached are three photos of the inside of the book. The Logos version, if you have the other books mentioned herein, will include links to other books in your library. This is extremely helpful given the amount of books I have.

Further, I really like the set-up of this one in Logos because of the footnotes. The footnotes are honest-to-goodness footnotes. Anyway, have a look:

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January 21st, 2014

In the email via @logosacademic and @bakeracademic, Bonhoeffer the Assassin? Challenging the Myth, Recovering His Call to Peacemaking

Most of us think we know the moving story of Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s life—a pacifist pastor turns anti-Hitler conspirator due to horrors encountered during World War II—but does the evidence really support this prevailing view? Bonhoeffer the Assassin? Challenging the Myth, Recovering His Call to Peacemaking carefully examines the biographical and textual evidence and finds no support for the theory that Bonhoeffer abandoned his ethic of discipleship and was involved in plots to assassinate Hitler. In fact, Bonhoeffer consistently affirmed a strong stance of peacemaking from 1932 to the end of his life, and his commitment to peace was integrated into his theology as a whole.

Bonhoeffer the Assassin? Challenging the Myth, Recovering His Call to Peacemaking – Logos Bible Software.

Can’t wait to read it!

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