A bit ago, David M. posted a question about Judges 5.2 on Facebook. As you know, I am currently researching a “unique” view of the death of Christ so when I read this, it immediately jumped out to me as something I could use. Judges 5.2 is set within a larger poem detailing the victory of Deborah when she was a judge in Israel. It is a very old portion of the Hebrew Bible, among the oldest some scholars believe.
The Hebrew (into English) reads,
‘For the leaders, the leaders in Israel, for the people who answered the call, bless the Lord. (REB)
While the the LXX(b) reads,
A revelation was uncovered in Israel when the people ignorantly sinned: praise the Lord!
Ἀπεκαλύφθη ἀποκάλυμμα ἐν Ἰσραήλ· ἐν τῷ ἀκουσιασθῆναι λαὸν εὐλογεῖτε Κύριον.
The key word in the LXX is:
Going further, the word is used in Numbers 15.28 (LXX):
שׁגג—commit error unintentionally (1): Nu 15:28
נדב—offer willingly (1): Judg 5:2G
Numbers 15.28 in the Hebrew (via REB English) and then in the LXX (and LS English):
and the priest will make expiation before the Lord for that person, who will then be forgiven.
Then the priest will make atonement for the person who inadvertently sinned and erred involuntarily before the Lord, to make atonement for him.
καὶ ἐξιλάσεται ὁ ἱερεὺς περὶ τῆς ψυχῆς τῆς ἀκουσιασθείσης καὶ ἁμαρτούσης ἀκουσίως ἔναντι Κυρίου, ἐξιλάσασθαι περὶ αὐτοῦ.
The key word, ἀκουσιάζομαι, is connected to the sin in ignorance found in Numbers 15.28 as well as the Greek words ἀκουσίως and ἀκούσιος also in Numbers 15.24-28. This section enumerates the required sacrifices for those, individual and congregation, who have committed a sin that could not be helped (either through ignorance or against their will). As I read this passage, I do not see a heavy line drawn through the different words, but rather seem them as synonyms.
Let me show you why I think they are all related, if not simply complimentary:
So, here is my thinking about Judges 5.2 LXX(b). The march to war, which required soldiers to volunteer themselves (to die), was a sin (albeit one of ignorance/against the will/necessary) because it involved the sacrifice of the person to the deity. However, because it was required, it was forgiven and rather celebrated. Because of the (self-)sacrifice of the soldiers, God awarded Israel victory. In Rome, you’d call this a devotio. In LXX Israel, you call it a revelation.
- The Sense of an Ending at the Conclusion of the Book of Joshua (ancienthebrewpoetry.typepad.com)
- Translation and Notes, 1 Clement 13 (Walk Humbly) (memoirandremains.wordpress.com)
- The Septuagint Sessions #9 – Francis Borchardt on 2 Maccabees 2:13-15 (timothymichaellaw.com)
- Lexham Analytical Lexicon to the Septuagint ↩