I have recently started to study 4th century Christianity in detail, primarily from the view point of Marcellus of Ancyra. In doing so, I have found that many of this works were attributed to others, especially Athanasius which betrays the clear connection between the Alexandrian Bishop and the arch-nemesis of the Eastern dyohypostatics and the man credited with single handedly creating the first schism between East and West.
In the late 360’s, an active communion still existed between Athanasius and Marcellus which helped to shield Marcellus from the full brunt of Basil’s attacks against him. A deacon under Marcellus, in an effort to heal the breach, composed a short summary of faith for the aging miahypostatic warrior and his community and sent it to Alexandria where Athanasius – who refused to his dying day to condemn Marcellus – signed it. It was place among the pseudo-Athanasian literature, but has been rescued from history as Marcellian in thought. Who would want Athanasius, the grandfather of the eventual East-West theological and political compromise of the Trinity to still be associated with Marcellus who had for his entire life fought against the idea of three hypostaseis, although Athanasius rarely – perhaps once in the Tome to the Antiochenes – the plurality of the hypostaseis, holding to his Old Nicene belief.
Below is my attempt, my first public attempt, at translating a Greek document – and I have seemingly chosen one which has provided me with plenty of exercises. If you see an error, please point it out. I am learning, and wholly self-taught in the language; but I am not prideful. It will be a slow process. Instead of posting every finished section, I will continuous update this page and repost it. Please free to offer corrections. (Note, this has been translated before, but it is a personal exercise.)
Once I am satisfied with the final work, I will work to provide an annotation to it (I am composing one in small form as I go along).
|Latin Title||Expositio fidei*|
|Modern Text||Migne, PG 25, 199-208.|
|English Translation||R.P. Casey, The Armenian Version of the pseudo-Athanasian Letter to the Antiochenes (Sermo maior de fide) and of the Expositio fidei, Studies and Documents 15 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1947), pp. 7-10.|
1.1 Πιστεύομεν εἰς ἕνα ἀγέννητον θεόν, πατέρα παντοκράτορα, πάντων ποιητὴν ὁρατῶν τε καὶ ἀοράτων, τὸν ἔχοντα ἀφ’ ἑαυτοῦ τὸ εἶναι.
1.2 καὶ εἰς ἕνα μονογενῆ λόγον, σοφίαν, υἱόν, ἐκ τοῦ πατρὸς ἀνάρχως καὶ ἀϊδίως γεγεννημένον, λόγον δὲ οὐ προφορικόν, οὐκ ἐνδιάθετον, οὐκ ἀπόρροιαν τοῦ τελείου, οὐ τμῆσιν τῆς ἀπαθοῦς φύσεως οὔτε προβολήν, ἀλλ’ υἱὸν αὐτοτελῆ, ζῶντά τε καὶ ἐνεργοῦντα, τὴν ἀληθινὴν εἰκόνα τοῦ πατρὸς ἰσότιμον καὶ ἰσόδοξον.
1.3 “τοῦτο γάρ ἐστι”, φησί, “τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πατρός,” “ἵνα καθὼς τιμῶσι τὸν πατέρα οὕτω τιμῶσι καὶ τὸν υἱόν.” θεὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκ θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ, ὥς φησιν Ἰωάννης ἐν καθολικαῖς· “καὶ ἐσμὲν ἐν τῷ ἀληθινῷ, ἐν τῷ υἱῷ αὐτοῦ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ ἀληθινὸς θεὸς καὶ ζωὴ αἰώνιος.”
1.4 παντοκράτορα ἐκ παντοκράτορος· πάντων γάρ, ὧν ἄρχει ὁ πατὴρ καὶ κρατεῖ, ἄρχει καὶ κρατεῖ kai o υἱόjjjjjj. ὅλος ἐξ ὅλου.
1.5 ὅμοιος τῷ πατρὶ ὢν ὥς φησιν ὁ κύριος· “ὁ ἐμὲ ἑωρακὼς ἑώρακε τὸν πατέρα.” ἐγεννήθη δὲ ἀνεκφράστως καὶ ἀπερινοήτως· “τὴν γὰρ γενεὰν αὐτοῦ τίς διηγήσεται;” ἀντὶ τοῦ οὐδείς.
1.6 ὃς ἐπὶ συντελείᾳ τῶν αἰώνων κατελθὼν ἐκ τῶν κόλπων τοῦ πατρός, ἐκ τῆς ἀχράντου παρθένου Μαρίας τὸν ἡμέτερον ἀνείληφεν ἄνθρωπον, Χριστὸν Ἰησοῦν, ὃν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν παθεῖν παρέδωκεν ἰδίᾳ προαιρέσει, ὥς φησιν ὁ κύριος· “οὐδεὶς αἴρει τὴν ψυχήν μου ἀπ’ ἐμοῦ. ἐξουσίαν ἔχω θεῖναι αὐτὴν καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἔχω πάλιν λαβεῖν αὐτήν.”
1.7 ἐν ᾧ ἀνθρώπῳ σταυρωθεὶς καὶ ἀποθανὼν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἀνέστη ἐκ νεκρῶν, ἀνελήφθη εἰς οὐρανούς, ἀρχὴ ὁδῶν κτισθεὶς ἡμῖν ἐν τῇ γῇ ὢν ἡμῖν ἔδειξεν ἐκ σκότους φῶς, σωτηρίαν ἐκ πλάνης, ζωὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν, εἴσοδον ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ, ἐξ οὗ ἐκβέβλητο Ἀδάμ, εἰς ὃν πάλιν εἰσῆλθε διὰ τοῦ ληστοῦ, ὡς εἶπεν ὁ κύριος· “σήμερον μετ’ ἐμοῦ ἔσῃ ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ,” εἰς ὃν καὶ ὁ Παῦλος εἰσῄει· ἄνοδόν τε εἰς οὐρανούς, “ὅπου πρόδρομος εἰσῆλθεν ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν” ὁ κυριακὸς ἄνθρωπος, ἐν ᾧ μέλλει κρίνειν ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς.
1.1 We believe in one unbegotten God, Father Almighty, maker of all that is, both visible and the invisible, have his own being.
1.2 And in one unique Logos, Wisdom, Son – with the Father in the beginning and begotten from eternity, but not put forth, not immanent, not flowing from the perfect, not separated by passion from His nature, neither cast out, but Son without End, both living and working, the true image of the Father, equal in honor and glory.
1.3 Now, because he is in the pattern of the will of the Father, so that when we honor the Father, we honor the Son. True God from True God, the pattern of which has been universally accepted in John, “and we are in Him who is true, in His Son Jesus Christ. This is the true God and eternal life”. (1st John 5.20)
1.4 Almighty from Almighty, over all things, whom the Father governs and rules, so the Son governs and rules, all in all.
1.5 Like the Father, which is what the Lord said: “He who has seen Me has seen the Father. (John 14.9b)” He was begotten but without explanation and comprehension, “And who will declare His generation? (Acts 8.33b)” For no one can.
1.6 Who, in the consummation of the Ages (Hebrews 9.26), went from the bosom of the Father, from the pure virgin, Mary, taking upon himself our humanity, Christ Jesus, he who of his own desire was delivered up and suffered for his people, as the Lord said, “No one takes it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. (John 10.18)”
1.7 He was crucified in his humanity, dying for us and rose again from the dead, and was taken up to the heavens, the first to create a way to show us the light from the darkness, life from death, to enter into paradise from which Adam was driven out, but for the thief, the Lord said, “I say to you, today you will be with Me in Paradise. (Luke 23.43)” As Paul states about he who entered the heavens, “where the forerunner has entered for us, (Hebrews 6.2)” where the Lord’s humanity is about to judge the living and the dead.
As I start Chapter, I have found several words which I am finding difficulty in translating. I will most likely not repost this (for those of you following) until I have completed the entire Chapter, satisfying my self by exhausting my resources in making sure the translation is correct. I am not happy with the translation yet, but posting so that others may help. Also, I am posting the Latin.
2.1 Πιστεύομεν ὁμοίως εἰς τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον, τὸ πάντα ἐρευνῶν “καὶ τὰ βάθη τοῦ θεοῦ,” ἀναθεματίζοντες τὰ παρὰ τοῦτο φρονοῦντα δόγματα.
2.2 οὔτε γὰρ υἱοπάτορα φρονοῦμεν ὡς οἱ Σαβέλλιοι λέγοντες μονοούσιον καὶ οὐχ ὁμοούσιον καὶ ἐν τούτῳ ἀναιροῦντες τὸ εἶναι υἱόν.
2.3 οὔτε τὸ παθητὸν σῶμα ὃ ἐφόρεσε διὰ τὴν τοῦ παντὸς κόσμου σωτηρίαν, ἀνατίθεμεν τῷ πατρί.
2.1 Credimus similiter in Spiritum sanctum, qui omnia scrutatur etiam profunda Dei. Dogmatius nutem omnibus quae his contraria fuerint, anathema dicimus.
2.2 Neque enim Filio Patrem agnoscimus qui unius sit substantiae, non vero consubstantialius, ut volont Seblliani, qui hoc pacto Filium pentius tollunt.
2.3 Neque etiam patibile corpus, quod propter totius mundi salutem gestavit, attribuimus Patri.
2.1 We believe also in the Spirit, the Holy (Hebrews 10.5), the searcher of all things, even the depths of God (1st Corinthians 2.10). Cursed is he who is against this doctrine.
2.2 Niether, for the Son-Father, of which Sabellius speaks, acknowledges the monoousian but not the homoousian, and he destroys the Son’s existence.
2.3 Neither, the suffering body, by which he saved all the world, given by the Father.